Henry Marshall

Article by Chris Butterfield

My journey compiling Wainwright’s entire publishing and printing history is in its fifth year. I have made many surprising discoveries during this period and acquired many rare artefacts. Part of the collection includes several early Lakeland Pictorial Guides: books one to five. These early impressions were unique because they had all their publishing details altered. The Westmorland Gazette had covered the previous publisher’s name, Henry Marshall, with their sticker. Why Henry was removed as a publisher so quickly is not completely clear. Hunter Davies first went public with this sad story in Wainwright: The Biography, published in 1995.

When Wainwright completed his first guidebook, The Eastern Fells, in 1955, he wanted to self-publish. Kendal librarian Henry Marshall advised him that acting as both author and publisher would not be wise. As a result of their conversation, Henry subsequently became his publisher. Wainwright preferred Henry’s name to his own, so everything worked out perfectly. Wainwright made a deal with local printers, Bateman and Hewitson Ltd, to print 2000 copies. They were only a small jobbing printer, so the Gazette was contracted to print the books for them.

Henry Marshall
The Eastern Fells – First Edition Published by Henry Marshall

Incidentally, book one’s engraving was completed in Manchester. It was until the Gazette could engrave book two; however, this never happened. Books two to seven state that the engraving was done at the Gazette, which wasn’t correct. To this day, no printer in Kendal has owned engraving equipment.

Book sales increased dramatically as the series progressed. Henry was responsible for all sales and distribution; his role was very demanding. However, things were about to take a turn for the worse for Henry. The Northern Fells guidebook was published in 1962. It would be the final book published by Henry. Suddenly, in 1963, Wainwright transferred all publishing rights to the Gazette without warning.

The final guidebook with Henry Marshall as publisher

Wainwright then sold all existing books to the Gazette for £753. They stickered over Henry’s name on all books with their name as publisher. It must have been heartbreaking for Henry when he found out. In Wainwright’s 1966 Fellwanderer: The Story Behind the Guidebooks, he says about Henry’s publishing role: “…subsequently this arrangement collapsed through the weight of numbers.”

Henry Marshall Erased From History
Henry Marshall was erased with a sticker

Wainwright didn’t inform Henry of his intentions and found out after the Gazette sealed the deal. To this day, no one knows why he did this without discussing it with Henry first. Henry wrote to Wainwright when he heard the news. The letter is a sad one. He managed to curtail his anger and remain professional throughout, but you can feel his devastation with every word. Henry passed away in 1964.

Henry’s letter confirms that Wainwright did not handle the situation correctly. It wasn’t Wainwright’s finest hour, but I do not believe it was a conscious decision to hurt Henry. He was a complicated character, and despite sometimes appearing impolite, he accomplished many acts of kindness and generosity throughout his life. Perhaps he lacked the same social skills and empathy that came naturally to others.

I believe there is always a trade-off with specially gifted people. We wouldn’t have these fantastic literary works of art we all know and love today if Wainwright wasn’t the enigmatic and antisocial character we all knew.

Shortly after I acquired the altered guides from 1963, it prompted me to pay my respects to both Wainwright and Henry. It was a glorious summer’s day when my wife Priscilla and I climbed Haystacks to where Wainwright’s ashes were scattered by Betty all those years ago. We were alone with the feeling of peace and tranquillity by Innominate Tarn. An hour later, we slowly made our way back down to Buttermere. You knew why Wainwright wanted to be here.

Innominate Tarn. Wainwright's Final Resting Place
Innominate Tarn is Wainwright’s final resting place
Buttermere like a millpond

Henry Marshall was buried at St. Cuthbert’s Church in Kentmere. I had never been to Kentmere before, so I wasn’t sure what to expect. Kentmere is a beautiful valley, and we didn’t want to leave. We arrived a few hours later and parked near the church. It was just as quiet and peaceful here as it was on Haystacks. After a few minutes of looking through all the old graves, I eventually found the graves of Henry, his wife, Edith and his son, Roger. I spent some time by Henry’s grave to pay my respects.

St Cuthbert’s Church, Kentmere
St Cuthbert’s Church, Kentmere
Henry Marshall
Henry Marshall’s gravestone

While collecting Wainwright’s work, it’s always been more than just the raw materials that make a book. It’s the human stories behind each title that resonates with me. The complex history behind the books has encouraged me to recount previously told tales and unearth new ones.

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