Pennine Way Companion

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The Pennine Way Companion was published in June 1968 and Wainwright dedicated it to:

THE ONE WHO HELPED MOST OF ALL

The full story behind this guide is quite complex and does not necessarily fit in with the focus of this article, which covers the publishing and printing history. However, there are certain aspects of the story that do need addressing. Wainwight’s dislike for the Pennine Way being one of them.

Wainwright had always been associated with the Lake District, but his connection with the backbone of northern England was just as strong. His 1938 circular walk, Pennine Journey, from Settle to Hadrian’s Wall covered much of this region. So, when Wainwright eventually began work on the Pennine Way Companion, he was no stranger to this wild landscape.

The Pennine Way is a 268-mile walk across half of England to the Scottish borders. It was the brainchild of Journalist and rambler, Tom Stephenson. He first proposed the trail back in 1935, and after much lobbying, the Pennine Way officially opened on April 24, 1965, making it England’s first official National Trail. A ceremony to celebrate this occasion was held on Malham Moor.

Despite Wainwright not altogether agreeing with the starting point in Edale and its terminus at Kirk Yetholm, it is quite clear he had immense admiration for what Tom Stephenson achieved. This inspired Wainwright to create his own long distance walk just a few years later.

Wainwright called upon a team of four gentleman who helped with the field work. Their tasks began in May 1965, and each collaborator covered an allocated section of the route, which had to be completed before the end of the year. Wainwright then spent the following year, from Easter 1966 through to late 1967, walking each section in stages, double-checking everything as he went.

Wainwright’s map of the Pennine Way printed on a handkerchief.

The guide is written in a very unorthodox, but clever way. You start from the back of the book and work your way to the front. In addition, each page is read from the bottom up. It does take some time to become accustomed to the design, but it works perfectly and soon becomes second nature. It feels natural using the guide to follow the route as intended from South to North or vice versa.

Studying Wainwright’s guides has taught me that not everything he wrote should be taken at face value. For example, his sense of humour could always be interpreted in more than one way. He was quite a complex character, and I doubt whether anyone ever really knew him.

Wainwright was very direct with how he felt about his experience on the Pennine Way. The weather was terrible, with driving rain for days on end. He was stuck in a bog on the summit of Black Hill and was fed up with the many miles of featureless moorland. That alone is enough to put anyone off.

Did Wainwright’s dislike of the Pennine Way simply stem from his experience on it? On the surface it appears so, but if we dig a little deeper, we discover that he was going through a very uncomfortable period in his life. His relationship with Betty McNally was developing towards the end of 1965. The following year, Ruth walked out of his life and began divorce proceedings against him. At one stage he spoke about scrapping the book altogether, so we know things weren’t looking good.

The lives of authors often reflect in their writing at any given moment in their life, and maybe Wainwright was no exception. Did his experience on the Pennine Way, combined with his life at the time, translate into his writing? Who knows, but I believe there is a strong case for this argument.

We will never really know for sure, and perhaps he meant exactly what he said in his closing comment, “You won’t come across me anywhere along the Pennine Way. I’ve had enough of it.”

Wainwright had much to thank Betty for during the time he spent researching the route. She owned a car and could assist by taking him to the hard-to-reach locations on the trail. This opened up a whole new world for Wainwright, enabling him to focus on projects beyond the confinements of the Cumbrian border. As a thank you, he dedicated the Pennine Way Companion to her.

The guide was a huge success for the Westmorland Gazette, and by the mid-1980s it had sold more copies than some of the earlier Lakeland Pictorial Guides. An incredible achievement.

A First Edition is identified by:

  1. Turquoise case with round corners and gilt lettering
  2. 18/- price on the dust jacket
  3. No impression number
Unlike the Lakeland Pictorial Guides, this page does not identify a First Edition.
Pennine Way Companion – First Edition with a turquoise case and gilt lettering.

In the mid to late 1970’s, the Gazette slowly moved away from Letterpress printing and invested in new offset litho technology. This improved quality and reduced print time. Presented here are the original negatives photographed directly from Wainwright original pages. Two separate negatives were produced, each with 16 images. The finished printed sheets were then guillotined ready for folding.

A sample of the original Pennine Way Companion negatives.

This guide was the first to launch with an 18/- price printed on the dust jacket. The other Pictorial Guides prices received an 18/- sticker, which was placed over the old price until new dust jackets were printed with the new price of 18/- 90p.

The job of price clipping or applying new stickers, was taken care of by Tommy Fellowes. He’d been the storeman at the Westmorland Gazette since the 1960s. As well as packing all book orders, he’d clipped and stickered thousands of dust jackets by the time he retired in the 1980s.

Before the end of 1970, the case corners were all squared. This saved time and money during production. The turquoise (Betty’s favourite colour) case would change to blue. Decimalisation was also upon us, and in 1971 the price of the Pennine Way Companion increased to £1.05. All the other Pictorial Guides remained at 90p

Material shortages in the early 1970s affected all Wainwright books. The Pennine Way Companion went from blue to yellow, and for the next few years the guide went through a vast array of different coloured cases.

The 70s were here, along with a new case and price increase.
Various dust jackets produced throughout the years.
Two dust jackets were printed on a single sheet then guillotined.
All dust jackets printed from the mid-1980s were laminated.
Dust jackets were eventually creased down one side so the bindary department staff could wrap them around the books quickly.

Dust jackets negatives were used for many years. Old prices were cut out and replaced or masked out completely. Presented here are a sample of dust jackets that survived the intervening years in storage.

An original Westmorland Gazette dust jacket negative priced £2.70.
An alternative Westmorland Gazette dust jacket negative with no price from the 1980s.
An original Westmorland Gazette dust jacket positive from the 1980s.
A master binding copy from the 1970s. This was used in the Westmorland Gazette’s bindery department to ensure the sections were collated in the correct order.
Unfortunately the guides weren’t immune from printing errors. This 1975 copy contains several unprinted pages.
Pennine Way Companion First Edition Printing Error
This First Edition featured doubled up sheets. Two for the price of one for a lucky customer.
Sample cases from 1975 and 1992 respectively.

The route of the Pennine Way has changed over the years. Despite the many path improvements, erosion has been a contributing factor. Landowners have also requested route changes. There have been diversions to include better scenery etc. The guide has received multiple revisions during its lifetime, which reflect the many route changes.

Presented here are a couple of examples when the guide caused concern. The first letter refers to a complaint made to the Gazette concerning a remark made by Wainwright in the guide. There was threat of action against the publisher, but nothing came of it. Whatever the circumstances, there was clearly no case. The description in question remained in the guide for another twenty years before it was updated.

Mr. Sharpe of Hanlith protests about Wainwright’s comment.

The second letter is from the Peak District National Park politely suggesting a minor route alteration to keep walkers safe during shooting days. Wainwright kindly acknowledged their concern and agreed. He amended the page accordingly, and about three years later the changes were reflected in the 64th impression.

Wainwright’s response in pencil can be clearly seen in the letter.
Case examples from the 1970s.

During this period, many guides that shared the same impression number were bound with different case types. Some case materials were in short supply, so alternatives were used. Presented here are two ‘Fifty-ninth’ impression guides from 1979, each with different cases.

Both burgandy beauties share the same impression number.

The early 1980s saw many changes for the guides. The gold blocking was removed from the front of the case, and the impression numbers were dropped. This saved time and money. The Pennine Way Companion had reached a staggering 86 impressions before they were removed. This highlighted the popularity of the Pennine Way, twenty years after its official opening.

Case examples from the 1980s.

The new Wainwright BBC TV series first aired in the North East during the Autumn of 1985. Its national debut was on May 12, 1986. A programme dedicated to the Pennine Way was part of the series, so stock levels of this title and others at the Gazette were increased to meet the expected demand.

The Westmorland Gazette notified all retailers and wholesalers of the upcoming TV Series.

The Gazette no longer printed the Wainwright books after 1987. They offered local printer Titus Wilson a four-year printing contract between 1988 and 1991.

Following the death of Wainwright in 1991, plans were being made for the book publishing to be transferred to Michael Joseph. By the Autumn of 1991 everything was complete. Presented here is the final Gazette order for the Pennine Way Companion.

Andrew Nichol, the Manager of General Printing & Book Publishing, would sign off all orders. The invoice for this order was paid shortly before all publishing rights were transferred to Michael Joseph.

Invoices and costs for all materials required to produced the final Pennine Way Companion print run in 1991.
The final purchase order for Pennine Way Companion, signed by Andrew Nichol.
Paid invoice for the final Pennine Way Companion order.

In preparation for the new book launch in the Spring of 1992, all new guidebook design instructions were forwarded to David Rigg, owner of Titus Wilson and Dixon Print. Chris Jesty, who later revised the guides, handwrote the introductory prelim pages for the new Michael Joseph guides.

Design instructions for the Michael Joseph reprints.
The Pennine Way Companion Prelims produced for Michael Joseph by Chris Jesty.

The original Gazette negatives were used to print the new Michael Joseph guides. The old prelims and introductory pages were swapped out where necessary to reflect the new publisher. The original prelims were retained.

New Michael Joseph title page.
New Michael Joseph prelims.

The Pennine Way Companion dust jacket negatives produced by the Gazette were now obsolete, and new ones were produced by Titus Wilson. Presented here are the negatives that were used to produce the Michael Joseph dust jacket.

Pennine Way Companion dust jacket artwork from 1992.
Pennine Way Companion negative sample one.
Pennine Way Companion negative sample two.
Pennine Way Companion negative sample three.
Pennine Way Companion negative sample four.

Michael Joseph’s new book launch was a success, but shortly after, the guidebook printing was transferred to Clays Ltd in Suffolk. This was very disappointing news for Kendal and was purely a business decision. Michael Joseph did not receive the original negatives; they were given second generation duplicates. The original materials were not leaving Kendal under any circumstances.

By now, all the guides were in desperate need of revising. Wainwright had given Chris Jesty his blessing to revise the guides, but only after his death. Unfortunately, Michael Joseph weren’t in favour of any guidebook revisions which greatly disappointed Chris.

However, it was clear that some route changes in the Pennine Way Companion were unavoidable. Chris was authorised to proceed with these minor alterations, and the new Revised Edition was published in 1994. There was a reprint three years later, and the trademark yellow pages were now replaced with white paper to match the rest of the guide.

Michael Joseph kept guidebook price increases to a minimum. The 1992 launch guide retailed at £8.99, and the 1994/7 revisions were both priced £9.99.

Chris was never really satisfied with the Michael Joseph revisions. He wanted to produce a thorough handwritten revision matching Wainwright’s original work as close as possible. The minor revisions produced for the 1994 guide were typeset and didn’t merge well with Wainwright’s organic handwriting.

From left to right:
Pennine Way Companion
. Michael Joseph 1992.
Pennine Way Companion – Revised Edition. Michael Joseph 1994.
Pennine Way Companion – Revised Edition. Michael Joseph 1997.
The traditional yellow pages were discontinued in 1997. Was this a cost cutting decision?

In February 1992, Michael Joseph were invoiced for 8,500 copies of the Pennine Way Companion. This is the only guide that never returned home to Kendal. It’s hard to believe it has been thirty years since it left, never to be seen again.

Michael Josephs invoice for their Pennine Way Companion order.

Michael Joseph ceased publication of the guidebooks in January 2003. Less than a month later, Frances Lincoln won the bid to republish them again. The return of Wainwright’s works of art to their rightful home in Kendal was a special occasion. Unfortunately, The Pennine Way Companion would not be amongst them.

For reasons unknown, it was reprinted in Singapore in May 2004. It was the same revised guide that Chris Jesty worked on, but the Revised Edition part of the title was removed from the guide. It was reprinted in Thailand in 2007 and finally in 2009.

There were some additional price increases from Frances Lincoln. The 2004 guide retailed at £11.99 on launch. The 2007 and 2009 guides were priced £12.99 and £13.99 respectively. It became available once again as part of a large clothbound boxset, also published in 2009.

For some reason the sales figures for this guide were waning. Both Michael Joseph and Frances Lincoln only managed three impressions each. Was this an indication that the Pennine Way itself was becoming unpopular?

From left to right:
Pennine Way CompanionFrances Lincoln 2004.
Pennine Way CompanionFrances Lincoln 2007.

Pennine Way CompanionFrances Lincoln 2009.

Fortunately, Frances Lincoln were in full support of the guidebook revisions. Chris Jesty was delighted with this news, and he dedicated the next ten years of his life delicately revising them all. He was very meticulous, and respected Wainwright’s original work, making changes only where necessary.

Chris began the field work for the Pennine Way Companion – Second Edition in May 2010. After spending many months on this iconic trail, the revisions were finally completed in January 2012.

From left to right:
Pennine Way Companion – Second Edition. Frances Lincoln 2011.

Pennine Way Companion ‘enlarged type’ (low gsm paper). Frances Lincoln 2009.
Pennine Way Companion ‘enlarged type’ (high gsm paper). Frances Lincoln 2009
.

In recent years, the sales of the Pennine Way Companion have undeniably plummeted. You could say it’s shared the same ups and downs as the Pennine Way itself, with regards to its popularity.

In the past, the Pennine Way had a bad reputation for its many peat bogs, driving rain and mile after mile of wet and dreary moorland. This wasn’t enough to detract people from attempting the walk, and many accepted the challenge. In addition, the free beer on behalf of Wainwright, as a reward for completing the walk was an opportunity too good to pass up.

I think the Pennine Way is just as good, if not better than it’s ever been. The paths are vastly improved, and we have more accommodation options. This is just my opinion, but if fewer people are walking it today, maybe it’s because there are so many new National Trails to choose from, and the Pennine Way gets lost in the mix. This is a huge topic itself, and one to address in a separate blog.

My wife and I completed the Pennine Way in 2013, and we were won over by this trail. Traversing through the numerous iconic and spectacular locations were an absolute joy. The solitude of the many moorland sections were a great escape from civilization, and you really felt at one with nature. The problems of everyday life just seemed to dissolve away. For those who have not yet walked the Pennine Way, I cannot recommend it enough. The exhilarating experience will leave a positive mark that will resonate with you for the rest of your life.

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12 Comments

  • Steve Everett says:

    Well done Chris, a very well documented read , much work gone into it, I used the Tom Stephenson guide along with wainwright during our completion in 1977, our experience, like AWs was wet most of the time, but was certainly a lesson in life everyone who loves solitude in wild moorland tracts of land should attempt it , back then it was very popular and we met so many people on the same journey and goal , I’m pleased you enjoyed your mission, a great piece of work, keep it gannin Chris 👍

    • Chris says:

      Thank you Steve. Interesting to know you used both Tom and Wainwright’s guides on your own Pennine Way. I wish I could have experienced the trail back in the 1970s, so thanks for sharing your fond memories of it.

  • Paul Mugleston says:

    Thanks for such a fascinating investigation.
    My copy is the 35th impression in beige and gold from 1976 and it cost me £1.40. It was my only guide when I walked it during the great heatwave of 1976 and contains details of every campsite, youth hostel, pint and sandwich I experienced during the memorable walk.
    I plan to walk it again when I retire in a couple of years but using a tour company rather than backpacking this time. I’d try and replicate my original route by using this guide again.
    Thanks again for such a fascinating article.

    • Chris says:

      Thanks for your kind comments Paul, and thanks also for sharing the details of your own book. With your own guide containing your log, it is now a priceless piece of personal history.

  • A first class portrayal of what I believe to be Alfred Wainwright’s best work that I am certain he would have totally approved of. Though I never walked the trail in one continuous stretch I have hiked most of the southern section that is close to my home in Huddersfield so it was great to re-live it again. Well Done for reproducing it in such fine style.

    • Chris says:

      Thanks Kenneth, you are far too kind. I agree with your opinion about the guide, it’s one of Wainwright’s finest pieces of work. You are lucky to live near some great sections of the walk near Huddersfield. I thoroughly enjoyed the first few days of my own Pennine Way.

  • Jonny Shaw says:

    Chris,
    A very interesting and informative read. My favourite Wainwright by a long chalk, you certainly did it justice. Thank you.

    • Chris says:

      Thanks Jonny. I know this particular guide is one of your favourites by Wainwright. I wanted to get it just right, with the limited material available to me.

  • Mike Ventress says:

    An excellent read Chris. I walked much of the route in the 1990’s using a copy published by Westmorland Gazzette costing £5.50. I well remember the bogs on the south Pennines! It is great to see the history of this book. Thankyou.

    • Chris says:

      Thanks Mike, I appreciate your input. It is interesting to hear when you walked most of the route, as I always wondered how busy it was back then. Thanks also for sharing the information about your own copy of the guide. The £5.50 priced guides was the very first printed that didn’t feature the impression number.

  • Fascinating and meticulously researched account, Chris. So interesting to read the life history of a book, especially when it covers a route Wainwright was ultimately ambivalent about.

    I have never walked it, but you’ve just about persuaded me that perhaps I should.

    • Chris says:

      Thanks for your words of encouragement George. If you can spare about three weeks, I highly recommend this trail. In my opinion, it still ranks as one of the finest long distance walks in the country. If you want to get away from it all, the Pennine Way will embrace you with open arms, and grant you that wish.

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